Instructional patterns in the music classroom

Titel des Projekts: „Inszenierungsmuster im Musikunterricht. Eine Videostudie zur Initiierung von Lernprozessen“
Projektleitung: Heike Gebauer
Universität: Universität Bremen, Institut für Musikwissenschaft und Musikpädagogik

Instructional patterns in the music classroom Instructional patterns in the music classroom

Weitere Informationen

Introduction: Whereas the TIMSS Video Surveys (1995 / 1999)  pioneered in combining research on the quality of learning outcomes with classroom process data (Stigler 1998; Reusser/Pauli/ Waldis 2010), German empirical music education research on competency modelling at least has made its first steps (Jordan et al. 2010). However, research on music classroom instruction is still in its infancy. The qualitative empirical study „Instructional patterns in the music classroom“ pursues a video-based investigation and conceptualisation of ‘cognitive activation’ provided in a German music classroom. As one of the TIMS-Video Survey results ‘cognitiv activation’ has been described as one of the basic dimensions of instructional quality by the research team on mathematics didactics. The concept describes the content-related learning opportunities provided by the teacher. ‘Cognitive activating’ instruction of high quality is meant to initiate deeply elaborated, problem-based learning by means of demanding tasks and classroom talk (Lipowsky 2006, 60). The significant role of tasks and classroom talk is also recognised in music didactics (Knigge, Lehmann-Wermser 2009, 8). However, constituting a domain-specific dimension of instructional quality, which follows each discipline’s specific core competencies and perspectives, ‘cognitive activation’ might take on rather a different form than in mathematics or science subjects. Due to the creative and affective dimension of music experience and learning, the term ‘cognitive’ needs to be conceptualised broadened. ‘Cognitive activation’ might not only relate to the cognitive learning objectives, but to a greater extent also comprises practical motoric, creative aesthetic and affective as well as social and intercultural dimensions of music experience. Hence, following Klieme and Rakoczy (2008), ‚cognitive activating’ instruction in music requires a subject-specific description and conceptualisation. The aim of this study is the investigation of the instructional formats of classroom talk and the tasks set in the regular music classroom with respect to its formal elements, subject-specific skills required, as well as the cognitive level of the learning process initiated.

Method: The data comprises seven 90 min. German music lessons on the topic „The Rondo as compositional and form principle “taught by 7  different teachers in form 5, 6 or 7. The main camera focusses on the teacher’s actions according to the further developed TIMSS-video data collecting standards (Jacobs et al: 2003, Seidel et al. 2003) : Videotapes were chosen due to the fact that audio-visual elements constitute certain music-related actions and traits of communication and interaction in the music classroom. Audio visual characteristics can be identified for example in a ritualised, nonverbal, thus implicit invitation to sing a song. They can also be found in teachers’ mimic impulses, which point to a clear articulation when singing. In similar ways rather than verbally explaining body percussion movements, the teacher show to clap and tap with his body parts. The video data are being approached by a qualitative, deductive, but mostly inductive content analysis (Mayring, 2008)  in accordance with low- to high-inferent categorisation. Several coding systems have already been developed and are applied to the data:

-          formal characteristics (e. g. an explicitly formulated task, a question-answer-chain in classroom talk, a medial impulse through a piano play)

-          social / working form (i. e. plenum, single, partner or group work)

-          content-related actions (Which aspects of the less on topic are being worked on?)

-          subject-specific competencies demanded and cognitive level (e. g. characterising the rondo concept, which has been experienced by doing a body percussion, on the basis of its symbolic notation – acquiring the conceptual understanding; compare the theoretic conceptwith a new musical piece – deepening the conceptual understanding)

-          didactic quality (e. g. initiating a cognitive conflict)

-          phases in the learning process (exploration of prior knowledge, acquisition of the new concept, applying the new concept)

 

Results: The study is currently in its phase of data analysis. Thus, final results cannot be presented yet. The current analysis is about to describe the instructional archetypes and to identify the music lesson specific characteristics  of ,cognitive activation´.

 

Literature:

Jacobs, Jennifer K., Garnier, Helen, Galimore, Ronald, Hallingsworth, Hilary, Givvin, Karen Bogard, Rust, Keith et al. (2003). Third International Mathematics and Science Study 1999. Video Study Technical Report. Volume 1: Mathematics. U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Online verfügbar unter:http://timssvideo.com/sites/default/files/TIMSS%201999%20Math%20Tech%20Report.pdf (Letzter Zugriff: 11.07.2011)

Jordan, Anne-Katrin, Knigge, Jens, Lehmann-Wermser, Andreas (2010). ProjektKoMus: Entwicklung von Kompetenzmodellen in einem ästhetischen Fach. In: Axel Gehrmann, Uwe Hericks, Manfred Lüders (Hrsg.), Bildungsstandards und Kompetenzmodelle. Beiträge zu einer aktuellen Diskussion über Schule, Lehrerbildung und Unterricht. (S. 209-222). Bad Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt.

Klieme, Eckhard, Schümer, Gundel, Knoll, Steffen. (2001) Mathematikunterricht in der Sekundarstufe I: „Aufgabenkultur“ und Unterrichtsgestaltung. In: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) (Hrsg.), TIMSS – Impulse für Schule und Unterricht. Forschungsbefunde, Reforminitiativen, Praxisberichte und Video-Dokumente. (S. 43-58). Bonn: BMBF. Online verfügbar unter: http://www.bmbf.de/pub/timss.pdf (Letzter Zugriff: 11.07.2011)

Klieme, Eckhard, Rakoczy, Katrin. (2008). Empirische Unterrichtsforschung und Fachdidaktik. Outcome-orientierte Messung und Prozessqualität des Unterrichts. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik. 54(2), 222–237.

Knigge, Jens, Lehmann-Wermser, Andreas (2009). Kompetenzorientierung im Musikunterricht. Einige Anmerkungen zu einem Perspektivwechsel. Online verfügbar unterhttp://www.musik.uni-bremen.de/fileadmin/mediapool/musik/dateien/Knigge_Lehmann-Wermser_2009.pdf (Letzter Zugriff: 11.07.2011)

Lipowsky, Frank (2006). Auf den Lehrer kommt es an. Empirische Evidenzen für Zusammenhänge zwischen Lehrerkompetenzen, Lehrerhandeln und dem Lernen der Schüler. In: C. Allemann-Ghionda, E. Terhart (Hrsg.), Kompetenzen und Kompetenzentwicklung von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern. (S. 47-70).Zeitschrift für Pädagogik. 51. Beiheft. Weinheim & Basel: Beltz.

Mayring, Philipp (2008): Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse. Grundlagen und Techniken (10. bearb. Aufl.). Weinheim: Beltz.

Reusser, Kurt, Pauli, Christine (2010). Unterrichtsgestaltung und Unterrichtsqualität – Ergebnisse einer internationalen und schweizerischen Videostudie zum Mathematikunterricht: Einleitung und Überblick. In: KurtReusser, Christine Pauli, Monika Waldis(Hrsg.), Unterrichtsgestaltung und Unterrichtsqualität. Ergebnisse einer internationalen und schweizerischen Videostudie zum Mathematikunterricht. (S. 9-32). Münster: Waxmann.

Seidel, Tina, Dalehefte, Inger Marie, Meyer, Lena (2003). Aufzeichnen von Physikunterricht. In:Tina Seidel, Manfred Prenzel, Reinders Duit,Manfred Lehrke(Hrsg.), Technischer Bericht zur Videostudie „Lehr-Lernprozesse im Physikunterricht“. (S. 47-76), Kiel: Leibniz-Institut für die Pädagogik der Naturwissenschaften (IPN). (IPN-Materialien) Online verfügbar unter: ftp://ftp.rz.uni-kiel.de/pub/ipn/misc/TechnBerichtVideostudie-VH.pdf (Letzter Zugriff: 11.07.2011)

Stigler, James W. (1998). Video Surveys: New data for the improvement of classroom instruction. In: Paris, Scott G. & Wellman, Henry M. (Eds.): Global prospects for education. Development, culture, and schooling. (pp. 129–168). Washington, DC: American Psychological Assoc..

 

Xing